Tourism Products and Services

Tangible and Untangible Elements


The Travel Book: A Journey Through Every Country in the World (Lonely Planet)

1. It is defined that tourism service is made up of tangible and intangible elements. Tangible services in tourism appeal to historical and natural values. Infrastructure and superstructure are also tangible, which shall be defined later.

Tangible services may require meeting certain minimum standards, be evaluated and calculated. On the other hand, intangible services cannot be measured or evaluated. It is stated that intangible factors give tourist elements the life, enjoyment and shine. They unite together with its friendliness and warmth to maintain the environment of the location. The welcoming approach it delivers is not measurable.

Contentment cannot be guaranteed through tangible factors, no matter how good they are. It is stated that it hugely depends on the location, how the tourists will react and feel towards it. Every experience and event tourists pass through need to be synchronized, for the pleasure and wellness.

It states that it all depends on the togetherness and closeness of people, for the approval of the entire product. It further adds, sometimes transport is required to reach a destination, and that is considered as a product. Other times, transportation is not available, but still it is casted as tourism.

2. The definition of tourism product is total physical and psychological pleasure, given to the tourists whilst travelling to their destination. It is stated that the tourist product concentrates on the services and facilities made for the needs of the tourists. (Bieap.gov.in>pdf>)

Tourism product is produced by services, facilities and attractions used or visited whilst on stay. Tourism product can also be defined as, what the tourists experience and what is happening at the time. (The Tourism Products & Services)

The category of tourism product falls into two areas. Firstly, resources that cannot already be produced, or attached. For example, historic, natural or cultural. Secondly, elements that can be copied, are in existence, further changes have made or made better. It is stated that climate and natural attractions, such as mountains or picturesque lakes, cannot be changed or duplicated. (The Tourism Products & Services)

Many examples of the historical characteristics and culture which cannot be reproduced, for example, as it is stated in (The Tourism Products & Services), ‘Mona Lisa’ by Leonardo da Vinci, Notre Dame, the Palace of Versailles and the Balzac’s House in France is already in existence. These cannot be replaced or copied, as they can only be offered by France. France has many more attractions which possess cultural and historical importance. It also states that, it is not possible to make duplicates of structures like the Angkor Wat in Cambodia, Taj Mahal in India or Borobudur in Indonesia. Naturally infrastructure of tourism and its superstructure can be progressed.

3Tourism infrastructure is the foundation that makes the superstructure. The definition of tourism infrastructure comprises of drainage, sewerage system, water supply, airports, electricity and roads. It states in (Panasiuk A.,2007), that tourism infrastructure is a variety of products and centres comprising material and organizational foundation for tourism development. It is made up of four basic components: accommodation facilities, accompanying facilities, food and beverage facilities and communication facilities.

The definition of superstructure as stated on the (internet), is a structure built on top of something else. It’s a part of a building above its foundation. Basically, the foundation here is referring to tourism infrastructure. As stated in (The Tourism Products & Services), superstructure is made up of a complete range of tourist systems and facilities, such as hotels, restaurants and accommodation units.

4. Before, defining cluster concept in tourism, I will give a brief definition of cluster. As stated in (MOVE IT EMAS easy!), according to C. Ketel’s, a cluster is “a group of companies and institutions co-located in a particular geographic area and associated by interdependencies in supplying a linked group of services and or products”. It also states that, due to the closeness of geography and activities, cluster members are motivated by different kinds of externalities, particularly to their area. For example, having access to specialise in labour markets and suppliers, and the pressure to reach high economic performance, due to the competitiveness. It is also stated that clusters share four critical characteristics, which are:

Proximity: companies are required to be adequately near in space to permit any affirmative spill-overs and to share common resources when occurred.

Linkages: to gain profit from proximity and interaction, they require to share final market demand.

Interactions: a level of active interaction must be present, to take positive cluster in effect.

Critical mass: adequate sum of participants is required to gain significant contact on companies’ actions.

The cluster concept as stated in (The Tourism Products & Services), that any kind of destination with tourism potential will integrate in a “cohesive geo-spatial framework”, an outstanding scope and variety of equivalent tourism benefits. It is also stated that the destination will determine the exact type of attractions, resources and services close to proximity of one another. There is the core product as well as the optional or marginal product.

The main product consists of suitable kinds of accommodations, tourist attractions, recreational services and places to eat. The marginal products join to this by supplying other tourist attractions in a form of incompatible beautiful natural scenery, entertainment, amusement, leisure, shopping, and recreational conferences. It is stated that, an immaculate destination is symbolized by a mixture of all the above elements.

5. Before explaining what are resort complexes, I shall give the definition of resort. It is stated in (Wikipedia) that the phrase resort could be applied for a hotel property that supplies a range of facilities, usually containing recreational and entertainment activities. Moreover, some resorts are condominium complexes which are timeshare or owned by a fraction or a whole condominium. (Wikipedia)

Tourism groups are established by carefully considered incorporated resort buildings. It is stated that, the visitors are placed in one location, they reduce the infrastructural requirements, and various accommodation units and hotels are made easier, and put together in an orderly manner. The right assistance, similar services and amenities are balanced out through this process. If a
building needs sufficient quantity of land, it requires to be bought at a moderate price, due to certain lands being of moderately short density organisations. (The Tourism Product and Services)

From a business perspective resorts of these kinds represent a highly ranked merchandise. They supply a good lay-out, and are properly arranged with an attractive neighbouring scenery. It is stated that the governments might form institutional companies at the beginning of this task, by organising this type of activity.

It is stated that the government may already own the land, or maybe get it for the required institutions. Companies take over the land, then they master a scheme, borrow money to create the needed infrastructure, and inspire local and foreign investors to form the required subordinate institution. (The Tourism Products and Services)

It is narrated that all-comprehensive resorts of this sort, are saleable and attractive. The likelihood of disturbance caused by more scattered types of tourism, can be prevented by focussing on the set locations. An example of certain resorts are, Nusa Dua in Bali, and Cancun in Mexico. (The Tourism Products and Services)

Reference Source:

Wikipedia

The Tourism Products & Services, Unit-2

Bieap.gov.in>pdf>

Panasiuk A, 200

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Special Interest Holidays

Many names have been used to describe different kinds of leisure tourism where the main reason is not just to relax and rest, the way many people see it as being the prime reason of a holiday.

Other than visiting attractions and relaxing, families and single or groups of travellers can participate in several tourist activities.

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These can be separated into three wide categories as following:

  • Special interest holidays;
  • Activity holidays; and
  • Sports tourism

A special interest holiday is a holiday spent doing a particular activity during the time of vacation. People who share same interests of the tourist would also be involved in the activity.

The following could be included in special interest holidays:

  • Cooking;
  • Photography;
  • Bird watching;
  • Fishing; and
  • Religious/pilgrimages

Above list holds a scale of special interest holidays that are accessible. Additionally, main part of the time should be occupied by the major activity. People taking photographs during holidays does not make the holiday a special interest holiday.

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On a special interest holiday all activities are organised, with a plan, based on a day-to-day timetable. For instance, group of travellers on a bird watching holiday, could be visiting different sites each day to find a particular kind of bird.

Majority of time the group would participate in a certain activity connected to their interest, however, at some point they will visit attractions and relax. However, a particular issue does arise of special interest holidays, in order to please everyone, there must be a balance across the major interest of the group and other things that would be undertaken. Importantly, family members and partners of the group on holiday need looking after too.

Source:

Unit 1 – An Introduction to Travel and Tourism

Self-Packaged Holidays

Although package holidays are quite popular, alot of people today do not purchase them from a travel agent or tour operator, but rather make their own plans. This is named as self-packaging. It refers to the procedure of booking a holiday by purchasing flights and accommodation as singular products, and making a package in the manner a tour operator would.

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Individual items can be purchased through a travel agent, but these are highly made online. This procedure is called independent travel that requires passengers to make direct bookings with the airlines and accommodation suppliers. However, this does not indicate people are travelling independently.

It has been stated that, the growing number of independent holidays is based on the following reasons:

  • Travellers may have previously visited the countries, and now feel more confident;
  • Travellers don’t feel the items provided by travel agents met their exact needs, or may have experienced something negative about package holidays in the past;
  • Tourists are happy to arrange a journey based on what they specifically want to do, see and visit, rather buy a holiday that is not according to their requirements;
  • People who have properties abroad or visit relatives and friends only need to book flights, as other parts of the journey have been organised;
  • Travellers can obtain information on destinations they want to visit through websites and guide books. There is a large variety of guide books available. Reports and advice on accommodation and other items are more widespread online;
  • Lastly, the internet has most importantly made it feasible to book reservations online, instead of being obligated to use services of the tour operator. It also provides independent tourists information they need and ways to book and pay for the accommodation and flights online.

SOURCE:

Unit-1 Introduction to Travel and Tourism

Package Holidays (Part 3)

Disadvantages of Package Holidays

When the initial package holidays were introduced 50 years ago, majority of standard people had not travelled to foreign destinations, but rather spent their holidays within the United Kingdom, where good weather was not guaranteed. Package holidays offered a genuine substitute to the habitual British seaside vacation.

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Since situations have altered during the years, several disadvantages have been recognised such as the following:
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  1. Package holiday – mass market destinations grew to connect with negative influence of tourism, such as bad behaviour and crime.
  2. People are not willing to lie in the sun for long periods of time, since the growing awareness of ‘dangers of skin cancer’.
  3. Majority of people want to break free from the crowds of busy beaches, where they don’t feel comfortable sitting around.
  4. In order to fill an aircraft, the tour operators offer only restricted option of flights and departure times.
  5. People became confused about the prices quoted in brochures, since tour operators started charging extras.
  6. On certain occasions, people were disappointed with the standard of food and accommodation offered.
  7. Many people became self-assured travellers and were not keen on being ‘organised’ by the convenience of tour operator’s schedules.

SOURCE:

Unit – 1 An Introduction to Travel & Tourism

Package Holidays (Part 2)

Advantages of Package Holidays

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1. Usually the package price is much cheaper than a traveller would pay for an individual ‘product’.

2. The purchaser of package would know the cost of holiday when paying for it as one ‘item’.

3. The travel agent or tour operators take majority of responsibility  of bookings and organisation.

4. Details of resort and hotel people are visiting can be seen on brochures published or online accounts and through today’s virtual tours.

5. To those people needing help and advice, a ‘rep’ is available most of the time on resort.

6. When people know majority of travellers staying at the hotel are from the UK, it builds their confidence to travel in those countries.

7. As part of the package, entertainment and children’s activities are supplied by the hotel. Package holidays are mostly linked with the term mass tourism. Tourists travelling in large volumes visiting the same destination is termed as ‘mass tourism’.

8. Mass tourism places are normally situated on coasts, with many visitors searching for ‘sun, sand and sea’ holiday.

9. Majority of mass tourism destinations produced as centres of package holidays, with high number of people arriving on chartered aircraft and stopping in pre-booked hotel accommodation.

10. Private-sector travel agents usually arrange holidays to mass tourism destinations, with only a few people visiting independently.

11. During the summer months majority of mass tourism destinations have a high or peak season.

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SOURCE:

Unit-1 An Introduction to Travel and Tourism

Introduction to Sabre GDS (Global Distribution System)

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What is a GDS?

A GDS (Global Distribution System) is a worldwide distribution network, giving travel agents the ability to book more or less any travel items throughout the world. Sabre is a GDS, used by travel agents to research travel options, check prices and book reservations for every types of travel services, from airline flights, rental cars, to hotel rooms.

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  1. Sabre is amongst the popular GDS’s used around the world. Computer’s, IT and telecom play an important role in the travel industry. Independent travel companies use complex Computerised Reservation Systems (CRS), to control their inventory with telecom connecting their systems to different computers throughout the globe.
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A GDS is comparable to a CRS, but used mainly for sales and issuing. It keeps statistics for thousands of different travel suppliers permitting travel experts to compare prices and services amongst sellers.

Reservations made by Sabre GDS, get transmitted to and kept in the travel agent’s computer system CRS.

For instance, when GDS is used to book a flight on British Airways, the reservation’s data is sent to airline’s private CRS. In few cases, the airline’s private CRS is GDS’s Sub-system, but the information is stored separately.

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The travel agent is allowed to work on and modify a booking, through the local copy of reservation kept in Sabre.

The airline’s and Sabre copy of the booking are linked, allowing each other to be notified of any changes being made, such as cancelling a flight or confirming a special request.

Amongst the strengths of a GDS, is it contains majority of travel-related data. Some of this data comes from the travel company’s own computer system CRS.

The GDS receives other data through aggregator services, such as ATPCO, OAG and INNOVATA. This shall be explained in the next blog.

SOURCE:

Sabre Ticketing, online course by Viasinc.

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Introduction to Travel and Tourism (Topic 2) Difference between inbound and outbound tourism

What is the main difference between inbound and outbound tourism?

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Inbound tourism refers to tourists coming in a country, and outbound tourism is defined as tourists getting out of their original country to be in a different one. The two terms (inbound and outbound tourism) is believed to be international tourism, defined as travelling from one country to another.

Wikipedia states the World Tourism Organisation defines tourists as people “staying outside of their origin for about a year for business leisure and other reasons”.

Inbound tourism can also be defined by others as, “people travelling for 24 hours and up to a few months to another country from their home country”. This type of travel is mainly for business and leisure purpose. For instance, if someone is travelling from the United Kingdom to Canada, they would become an inbound tourist for Canada. However, if a local is travelling to United Kingdom from Canada, that person would be classified as an outbound tourist of Canada.

Source:

Unit-1 An Introduction to Travel and Tourism