Darkness I come!

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The magnificent view of two trees, half full of singing birds. Darkness covers premises around, glimpse of street lights glow further on.

The different shades of blue colour sky, soon to end with a goodnight bye.

Further away fades the pinkish sky, narrowing the light over your roof tops. The stars begin to shine over you, sweet dreams until the next view.


February Blues!

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The attractive view of February 25th, on a City of United Kingdom. The warm breeze, in a mixture of wintry naked trees. Clear blue summer sky and faint lines of white clouds.

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Closer we get leaving the bright blue sky, the city is enlightened by pinkish skies and warm breeze. The silent birds nowhere to be seen, and loud planes not to be heard. Outstanding still, the picture is covered of many features.

Tourism Products and Services

Tangible and Untangible Elements

The Travel Book: A Journey Through Every Country in the World (Lonely Planet)

1. It is defined that tourism service is made up of tangible and intangible elements. Tangible services in tourism appeal to historical and natural values. Infrastructure and superstructure are also tangible, which shall be defined later.

Tangible services may require meeting certain minimum standards, be evaluated and calculated. On the other hand, intangible services cannot be measured or evaluated. It is stated that intangible factors give tourist elements the life, enjoyment and shine. They unite together with its friendliness and warmth to maintain the environment of the location. The welcoming approach it delivers is not measurable.

Contentment cannot be guaranteed through tangible factors, no matter how good they are. It is stated that it hugely depends on the location, how the tourists will react and feel towards it. Every experience and event tourists pass through need to be synchronized, for the pleasure and wellness.

It states that it all depends on the togetherness and closeness of people, for the approval of the entire product. It further adds, sometimes transport is required to reach a destination, and that is considered as a product. Other times, transportation is not available, but still it is casted as tourism.

2. The definition of tourism product is total physical and psychological pleasure, given to the tourists whilst travelling to their destination. It is stated that the tourist product concentrates on the services and facilities made for the needs of the tourists. (Bieap.gov.in>pdf>)

Tourism product is produced by services, facilities and attractions used or visited whilst on stay. Tourism product can also be defined as, what the tourists experience and what is happening at the time. (The Tourism Products & Services)

The category of tourism product falls into two areas. Firstly, resources that cannot already be produced, or attached. For example, historic, natural or cultural. Secondly, elements that can be copied, are in existence, further changes have made or made better. It is stated that climate and natural attractions, such as mountains or picturesque lakes, cannot be changed or duplicated. (The Tourism Products & Services)

Many examples of the historical characteristics and culture which cannot be reproduced, for example, as it is stated in (The Tourism Products & Services), ‘Mona Lisa’ by Leonardo da Vinci, Notre Dame, the Palace of Versailles and the Balzac’s House in France is already in existence. These cannot be replaced or copied, as they can only be offered by France. France has many more attractions which possess cultural and historical importance. It also states that, it is not possible to make duplicates of structures like the Angkor Wat in Cambodia, Taj Mahal in India or Borobudur in Indonesia. Naturally infrastructure of tourism and its superstructure can be progressed.

3Tourism infrastructure is the foundation that makes the superstructure. The definition of tourism infrastructure comprises of drainage, sewerage system, water supply, airports, electricity and roads. It states in (Panasiuk A.,2007), that tourism infrastructure is a variety of products and centres comprising material and organizational foundation for tourism development. It is made up of four basic components: accommodation facilities, accompanying facilities, food and beverage facilities and communication facilities.

The definition of superstructure as stated on the (internet), is a structure built on top of something else. It’s a part of a building above its foundation. Basically, the foundation here is referring to tourism infrastructure. As stated in (The Tourism Products & Services), superstructure is made up of a complete range of tourist systems and facilities, such as hotels, restaurants and accommodation units.

4. Before, defining cluster concept in tourism, I will give a brief definition of cluster. As stated in (MOVE IT EMAS easy!), according to C. Ketel’s, a cluster is “a group of companies and institutions co-located in a particular geographic area and associated by interdependencies in supplying a linked group of services and or products”. It also states that, due to the closeness of geography and activities, cluster members are motivated by different kinds of externalities, particularly to their area. For example, having access to specialise in labour markets and suppliers, and the pressure to reach high economic performance, due to the competitiveness. It is also stated that clusters share four critical characteristics, which are:

Proximity: companies are required to be adequately near in space to permit any affirmative spill-overs and to share common resources when occurred.

Linkages: to gain profit from proximity and interaction, they require to share final market demand.

Interactions: a level of active interaction must be present, to take positive cluster in effect.

Critical mass: adequate sum of participants is required to gain significant contact on companies’ actions.

The cluster concept as stated in (The Tourism Products & Services), that any kind of destination with tourism potential will integrate in a “cohesive geo-spatial framework”, an outstanding scope and variety of equivalent tourism benefits. It is also stated that the destination will determine the exact type of attractions, resources and services close to proximity of one another. There is the core product as well as the optional or marginal product.

The main product consists of suitable kinds of accommodations, tourist attractions, recreational services and places to eat. The marginal products join to this by supplying other tourist attractions in a form of incompatible beautiful natural scenery, entertainment, amusement, leisure, shopping, and recreational conferences. It is stated that, an immaculate destination is symbolized by a mixture of all the above elements.

5. Before explaining what are resort complexes, I shall give the definition of resort. It is stated in (Wikipedia) that the phrase resort could be applied for a hotel property that supplies a range of facilities, usually containing recreational and entertainment activities. Moreover, some resorts are condominium complexes which are timeshare or owned by a fraction or a whole condominium. (Wikipedia)

Tourism groups are established by carefully considered incorporated resort buildings. It is stated that, the visitors are placed in one location, they reduce the infrastructural requirements, and various accommodation units and hotels are made easier, and put together in an orderly manner. The right assistance, similar services and amenities are balanced out through this process. If a
building needs sufficient quantity of land, it requires to be bought at a moderate price, due to certain lands being of moderately short density organisations. (The Tourism Product and Services)

From a business perspective resorts of these kinds represent a highly ranked merchandise. They supply a good lay-out, and are properly arranged with an attractive neighbouring scenery. It is stated that the governments might form institutional companies at the beginning of this task, by organising this type of activity.

It is stated that the government may already own the land, or maybe get it for the required institutions. Companies take over the land, then they master a scheme, borrow money to create the needed infrastructure, and inspire local and foreign investors to form the required subordinate institution. (The Tourism Products and Services)

It is narrated that all-comprehensive resorts of this sort, are saleable and attractive. The likelihood of disturbance caused by more scattered types of tourism, can be prevented by focussing on the set locations. An example of certain resorts are, Nusa Dua in Bali, and Cancun in Mexico. (The Tourism Products and Services)

Reference Source:


The Tourism Products & Services, Unit-2


Panasiuk A, 200

Who am I?

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The Corner Shop in Cockleberry Bay: The book everyone is talking about now!

Hiding away in the naked tree amongst the clear blue sky and pinkish clouds. Any idea what can be hidden through the branches, of the lofty tree?

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A glimpse of shine above the crispy leaves of tall trees. Have you guessed the hidden truth?

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The picture is complete by the shining full moon. Although the dangling cable wires are not related, they surely connect to these houses. It’s a beautiful scenery, full of compliments.

Photography Skills

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In the clear blue sky and broken clouds, spot a black dot across the tree.

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When zoomed in, a plane can be seen jetting away.

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During sunset the moon is shining through the clear blue sky, above the naked trees.

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The naked tree with branches and twigs, birds make a nest for comfort and warmth.

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On a beautiful evening the bus is approaching on a not so busy road.

The beauty was captured whilst waiting at the traffic lights!

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On the evening of Sunday, driving past a dual carriageway, I witnessed the magnificent beauty of nature.

Approaching sunset with clear sky and smoky clouds, anticipated to stop at traffic lights and capture the outstanding view.

The thought was wondering in my head when suddenly the lights turned red. Relieved with joy, I pulled out my phone and clicked the most significant scenery.

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As much as I love and admire nature, all praise be to the almighty, the creator of such creation.

The beauty of nature!

Whenever I see any moment of outstanding beauty, it gets captured on my phone. Observing the clouds formed into many shapes, and shades obliges me to further praise the almighty. The creation of the creator is just beautiful.
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Concealed behind the dark smoky clouds is the reserved shining sun, reflecting it’s light to the further clouds that seem like mountains full of snow.

Between the clouds is placed the bright blue sky, that gives its breeze to those bare trees below.

The landscape could be perceived through the bare trees opposite the house.

Viewing the right over the fence of school, grass is considered to be refreshing and green. However, rusty-brown leaves can be noticed piled down the slope of grass, alongside the lamp-post.
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Hope you enjoyed reading my thoughts of beauty of the nature. Looking at the picture in detail it reveals several concepts of scenery.


Special Interest Holidays

Many names have been used to describe different kinds of leisure tourism where the main reason is not just to relax and rest, the way many people see it as being the prime reason of a holiday.

Other than visiting attractions and relaxing, families and single or groups of travellers can participate in several tourist activities.

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These can be separated into three wide categories as following:

  • Special interest holidays;
  • Activity holidays; and
  • Sports tourism

A special interest holiday is a holiday spent doing a particular activity during the time of vacation. People who share same interests of the tourist would also be involved in the activity.

The following could be included in special interest holidays:

  • Cooking;
  • Photography;
  • Bird watching;
  • Fishing; and
  • Religious/pilgrimages

Above list holds a scale of special interest holidays that are accessible. Additionally, main part of the time should be occupied by the major activity. People taking photographs during holidays does not make the holiday a special interest holiday.

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On a special interest holiday all activities are organised, with a plan, based on a day-to-day timetable. For instance, group of travellers on a bird watching holiday, could be visiting different sites each day to find a particular kind of bird.

Majority of time the group would participate in a certain activity connected to their interest, however, at some point they will visit attractions and relax. However, a particular issue does arise of special interest holidays, in order to please everyone, there must be a balance across the major interest of the group and other things that would be undertaken. Importantly, family members and partners of the group on holiday need looking after too.


Unit 1 – An Introduction to Travel and Tourism

Welcome snow!

Moon filter caption by RazPhotos

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The effects of photography are just immense, moon filter is awesome. However natural effects are on another level!
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Original caption by RazPhotos

It makes a huge difference in the appearance of the photograph when taken from outside compared to inside.

Used a Samsung 7 for the amazing shots.

Self-Packaged Holidays

Although package holidays are quite popular, alot of people today do not purchase them from a travel agent or tour operator, but rather make their own plans. This is named as self-packaging. It refers to the procedure of booking a holiday by purchasing flights and accommodation as singular products, and making a package in the manner a tour operator would.

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Individual items can be purchased through a travel agent, but these are highly made online. This procedure is called independent travel that requires passengers to make direct bookings with the airlines and accommodation suppliers. However, this does not indicate people are travelling independently.

It has been stated that, the growing number of independent holidays is based on the following reasons:

  • Travellers may have previously visited the countries, and now feel more confident;
  • Travellers don’t feel the items provided by travel agents met their exact needs, or may have experienced something negative about package holidays in the past;
  • Tourists are happy to arrange a journey based on what they specifically want to do, see and visit, rather buy a holiday that is not according to their requirements;
  • People who have properties abroad or visit relatives and friends only need to book flights, as other parts of the journey have been organised;
  • Travellers can obtain information on destinations they want to visit through websites and guide books. There is a large variety of guide books available. Reports and advice on accommodation and other items are more widespread online;
  • Lastly, the internet has most importantly made it feasible to book reservations online, instead of being obligated to use services of the tour operator. It also provides independent tourists information they need and ways to book and pay for the accommodation and flights online.


Unit-1 Introduction to Travel and Tourism

‘Private Jet’ experience is also open to RyanAir passengers at Manchester Airport

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Manchester Airport has promised – “Buy RyanAir, fly private”, as it disclosed proposals for an exclusive terminal.

The third busiest airport of Britain, Manchester Airport is organising an experiment named PremiAir. Passengers shall be able to circumvent hectic public zones of the existing terminals.

Passengers will be able to park in a safe area, check-in their baggage, stay in a private lounge and get through a committed security channel.

Just before departure passengers will be driven direct to their plane in a personnal car transfer.

Premium passengers travelling on long-haul airlines such as, Cathay Pacific, Emirates and Singapore Airlines can benefit from this service. However, short-haul airlines such as RyanAir to Dublin and easyJet to Alicante can also use it.
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Inbound passengers are also welcome, who shall be greeted at the airport steps by a private car and taken to the PremiAir service for quick-track passport processing. They shall then wait in the lounge until their baggage is retrieved and fetched to them.

The new service will be situated next to the Runway Visitor Park, away from the existing terminals. The expected opening is in “mid-2019”, just in time for the peak summer period.

The less mobile and wealthy passengers may be interested in this service. The airport asserts: “The total walking distance from arriving at the terminal to the aircraft door will be under 20 metres.”

Chief executive, Andrew Harrison, airport facilities for Manchester Airports Group, stated: “We hope the services it will offer will appeal to a wide range of passengers, whether they are travelling for business, want to mark a special occasion or just want to add something different to their experience.”

He also added, that it could be extended to the group’s other airlines, East Midland and Stansted.

Director of operations Ross Powell, for the designer, Jacobs, stated: “We have worked hard to create a simple yet elegant design, utilising natural materials, full height glass and visual connection to the airfield to offer the guest a warm, relaxing and personalised environment.” (Independent.co.uk)

Manchester Airport states: “No other major airport in the UK offers an accessible private terminal option for passengers on a ‘pay as you use’ basis.

“Such facilities are often restricted to business class and first class passengers or certain airlines, typically at significant additional cost.” (Independent.co.uk)

However, Heathrow Airport has had a VIP facility situated at Windsor Suite, for several years.

Only business and first class passengers are allowed to use “Heathrow VIP”, costing £3,300 for a maximum of three people.

Potential clients were told by the airport that: “Paparazzi are not allowed in the secure area of our suites and photography of any kind is not allowed at Heathrow without a permit.” However it cautions: “We cannot guarantee long distance photographs will not be taken”. (Indepentent.co.uk)



Seven senior PAF officers are appointed by PIA ‘to face targets’

According to Tribune an announcement was made on Wednesday that Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) will be posting seven experienced officers of Pakistan Army Force (PAF) at distinct levels for the national flag carrier.

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Four officers are appointed to PIA CEO Air Marshal Arshad Malik, stated Mashood Tajwar a spokesman of PIA.

He also added, three remaining officers will be working with PIA on different positions.

From air marshal posts to flight lieutenant officers shall be appointed.

Stated by sources, the targets set by the government will be met by this movement in order to cut the losses suffered by PIA.

Members also stated, the decision made was to guide the extremely out of money airline into right way.

The CEO of PIA will originally perform duties as acting head, and included are other officers such as Air Vice Marshal Subhan Nazir Syed, Air Vice Marshal Noor Abbas and Air Commodore Khalidur Rehman.

The appointed officers will serve between one and three years, and supervise procession engineering, chief executive secretariat and information technology.

Furthermore, in order to better the airline’s performance, duties of budgeting, food services, PAC projects, finance and the HR department have also been given to the officers.



Package Holidays (Part 3)

Disadvantages of Package Holidays

When the initial package holidays were introduced 50 years ago, majority of standard people had not travelled to foreign destinations, but rather spent their holidays within the United Kingdom, where good weather was not guaranteed. Package holidays offered a genuine substitute to the habitual British seaside vacation.

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Since situations have altered during the years, several disadvantages have been recognised such as the following:
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  1. Package holiday – mass market destinations grew to connect with negative influence of tourism, such as bad behaviour and crime.
  2. People are not willing to lie in the sun for long periods of time, since the growing awareness of ‘dangers of skin cancer’.
  3. Majority of people want to break free from the crowds of busy beaches, where they don’t feel comfortable sitting around.
  4. In order to fill an aircraft, the tour operators offer only restricted option of flights and departure times.
  5. People became confused about the prices quoted in brochures, since tour operators started charging extras.
  6. On certain occasions, people were disappointed with the standard of food and accommodation offered.
  7. Many people became self-assured travellers and were not keen on being ‘organised’ by the convenience of tour operator’s schedules.


Unit – 1 An Introduction to Travel & Tourism

Package Holidays (Part 2)

Advantages of Package Holidays

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1. Usually the package price is much cheaper than a traveller would pay for an individual ‘product’.

2. The purchaser of package would know the cost of holiday when paying for it as one ‘item’.

3. The travel agent or tour operators take majority of responsibility  of bookings and organisation.

4. Details of resort and hotel people are visiting can be seen on brochures published or online accounts and through today’s virtual tours.

5. To those people needing help and advice, a ‘rep’ is available most of the time on resort.

6. When people know majority of travellers staying at the hotel are from the UK, it builds their confidence to travel in those countries.

7. As part of the package, entertainment and children’s activities are supplied by the hotel. Package holidays are mostly linked with the term mass tourism. Tourists travelling in large volumes visiting the same destination is termed as ‘mass tourism’.

8. Mass tourism places are normally situated on coasts, with many visitors searching for ‘sun, sand and sea’ holiday.

9. Majority of mass tourism destinations produced as centres of package holidays, with high number of people arriving on chartered aircraft and stopping in pre-booked hotel accommodation.

10. Private-sector travel agents usually arrange holidays to mass tourism destinations, with only a few people visiting independently.

11. During the summer months majority of mass tourism destinations have a high or peak season.

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Unit-1 An Introduction to Travel and Tourism

Handmade Baby knitwear! keep your cuties warm in the winter🧤🧦

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It’s important to maintain the little feet and hands of our bundle of joys during winter.

Handmade hats, booties, mittens etc, can be found at reasonable prices from the website below:

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All products are handknitted with soft washable acrylic wool.

Premature baby or dolls outfit, hat, cardigan and booties

All products are handmade. Full details can be found on the website:


Ever wondered why shepherd’s pie is called “Shepherd’s Pie”?

As I was preparing shepherd’s pie for an evening meal, my mind began to wonder, why is shepherd’s pie called “shepherd’s pie”?

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According to Wikipedia, shepherd’s pie is a meat pie, with a crust or topping of mashed potato. I used chicken mince for my recipe, and not the beef mince.
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Cooked chicken mince with jalapenos

It narrates in Wikipedia, the dish was originated in United Kingdom and Ireland. The main ingredients of the recipe are mashed potato crust and meat filling.

Mozzarella cheese is layered top of the cooked chicken mince.

Grated cheese layered on top of filling

Wikipedia also states, the recipe has many alterations, however, defined ingredients are minced red meat, (usually, the lamb is used for ‘cottage pie’, and beef for ‘shepherds pie), cooked in gravy or sauce with onions and occasionally with vegetables, then topped with mashed potato and finally baked. Some use grated cheese to create a layer of melted cheese on top.

Mashed potato ready to be layered on top of mince and cheese

I prepared the mashed potato, adding a hint of salt and black pepper for extra taste.

The cook books of earlier times, as stated in Wikipedia described the recipe as a method of utilizing leftover cooked meat of any type, with the sides and bottom of dish covered with mashed potato, aswell as the top.

Mashed potato layered on top of cooked mince and cheese

Whilst spreading the mashed potato oil from the mince mixed into it. At the time, it looked stained and quite unpleasant. However, surprisingly after the shepherd’s pie was cooked, I was overwhelmed by golden and crispy effect.

Baked shepherd’s pie ready to be eaten

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Shepherd’s pie served with coleslaw, beans and salad



Memorable PICS of my vacation to PAKISTAN! A visit to Rohtas Fort….

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View of the nearby mosques from 2nd level terrace of Rohatas Fort.

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Mesmerising view of defensive walls from the bastion at Rohtas Fort.

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Close up view of thick defensive walls from the bastion of Rohtas Fort.

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View from 3rd level terrace each attached by the staircase at Rohtas Fort. The abandoned mosque is situated in middle of grass field.

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Another outstanding view of the defensive walls at Rohtas Fort, edging with scenic hills.

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The Haveli and remaining mansion of Man Singh at Rohtas Fort.

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Close up of Man Singh’s remaining mansion at Rohtas Fort. A rickshaw can be seen parked near the staircase. Tourists visit only room left of the remaining mansion.

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The 16th century coins of Emperor Sher Shah Suri, at Sohail Akbar Khan Visitors Information Centre, Rohtas Fort museum.

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The shields of (British period) at Rohtas Fort museum.

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Swords and helmet of (British Period) at Rohtas Fort museum.

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Swords of the (British Period) at Rohtas Fort museum.

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Statues of Emperor Sher Sha Suri with his guards at Rohtas Fort museum.

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Statue of the wife (seated) of Sher Sha Suri at Rohtas Fort museum.

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Sohail Akbar Khan Visitors Information Centre/Museum Rohtas Fort.

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View of the Akbar Khan visitors Information Centre/ museum from 1st level terrace of Rohtas Fort.

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Sher Shah Suri constructed Rohtas Fort to block Emperor Humayun’s return from India after defeating him in the battle of Kanouj. (Wikipedia)

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Viewing the 3 levels of terrace each attached by a staircase. The outer walls of bastion, give a lighter shade through the reflection of sun.

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Yet another stunning view of Rohtas Fort, from above the grassfields and below the shining sun. The fresh breeze and clear skies, with a hint of small clouds overlooking the hills far away.

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The rays of shining sun above the grassfield and bastion fortifying the thick walls at Rohtas Fort.




Passengers report extreme fear after ‘loud bang’ on rear of Etihad Airways from Manchester Airport to Abu Dhabi

A terrified passenger described the ordeal to Manchester Evening: “We were going into the air and i thought ‘this is it”.

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Following the incident on Monday night, passengers criticised Etihad Airways for insufficient interaction.

The flight from Manchester Airport to Abu Dhabi was compelled to return back, after a ‘loud bang’ at rear of the plane terrified passengers, and cabin being engulfed with smoke.

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Due to technical fault, Etihad Airways Flight EY22, returned to Manchester Airport shortly after take-off.

Passengers stated the “loud bang” was heard just before take-off, from the back of the plane.

The plane was in air for approximately 30 minutes, engulfing in smoke before the pilot returned back to Manchester Airport.

The ‘cabin pressurization system’ had a technical fault, according to Etihad Airways spokesperson.

On Tuesday morning passengers were placed on a rescheduled flight, after staying the night in a hotel.

Few passengers criticised Etihad bosses for the “shortness of communication” after the incident.

A passenger travelling to meet his friends in Thailand, Gary McVey, 47, stated: “The plane was on the runway and then there was an explosion”.

He continued: “We were stuck in air for 25 to 30 minutes. It was quite a heavy landing. We were kept on the runway for about an hour”.

Gary who is from Cheshire, stated further: “People were screaming for the plane to stop. Then when we were going into the air, I thought ‘well here we go, this is it’.

He continued: “There is a woman with a five month old baby, she has not been offered any assistance formula or water”. (www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk)

Another passenger, Priyanka Mohanan, 33, from Macclesfield, stated: “As soon as the flight took off, there was a bang sound. Passengers started shouting ‘stop the flight’. I looked back and there was alot of smoke.

“By that time, we had already taken off into the air. There were no casualties or anything, but there was alot of smoke.

“As soon as we landed the firebrigade was there.

“I am visiting family in Mumbai, I was supposed to attend a wedding and have missed one day already”. (www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk)

Etihad Airways’s spokesperson stated: “Etihad Airways confirms that flight EY22, Manchester to Abu Dhabi on 14 January returned to Manchester Airport shortly after take-off, due to a technical issue associated with the cabin pressurization system.

“The aircraft landed safely and passengers disembarked and were offered hotel accommodation including meals. Guests were updated throughout the disruption and were re-booked onto alternative flights on January 15.

“We regret any inconvenience caused. The safety of our guests and crew is always our number one priority”. (www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk)


Where does Pilau rice originate from?

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According to Wikipedia, pilaf or pilau is a rice dish, and the technique of cooking it, to some extent is of West Asian origin and partially South Asian. The rice is cooked in stock, with spices, and other ingredients such as vegetables, meat and dried fruit. Some ingredients can be mixed after cooking, if need to maintain single grains seperate from clumping.

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Pilaf or pilau is a main course dish, originated from West Asia, South Asia, Central Asia, Balkans, East Africa and the Caribean. The rice is served hot, and its main ingredients are: rice, spices, meat, vegetables and dried fruits.

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It mentions in Wikipedia that the ancient Hindu text Mahabharata, from the Indian Subcontinent states, rice and meat are cooked together, and “pollao” or “pulao” is a word referring to the dish in ancient Sanskrit works, for example the Yajnavalkya Smrti.

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Alexandra the Great was served pilaf at the royal banquet, after his capture of Sogdian capital of Marakanda, now known as the modern Samarkand.

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The tenth-century Persian scholar Avicena (ibn Sina), discovered the receipe of pilaf, and devoted a chapter on how to make various pilafs, in his books of medical sciences. He also gave explanations on the benefits and downsides of each ingredient used in preparing the dishes. It also states in Wikipedia, Persians believe Ibn Sina is the “father” of current pilaf.

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In the Middle East and Transcaucasia pilau became quality food over the years with alterations and changes made by the Persians, Turks, Arabs and Armenians. Bukharan and Persian Jews introduced it to Isreal.

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Throughout the time of Soviet Union, the Central Asian types of the dish mushroomed throughout all Soviet republics, that it grew part of the popular Soviet Cuisine.

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Pilot discloses when to worry about plane turbulence!

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For many passengers flights and how the planes function is an enigma, and having to put trust in the pilots capacity. Fliers are frequently worried about turbulence. It can differ from mild interruption to being violently shook to your seat. It is prompted by divergent masses of air striking at inconsistent speeds and courses. However, how concerned should the passengers be? Does it actually signify terrible news at any one point?

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“Turbulence” as a matter of fact should certainly not worry the passengers, disclosed the pilot to Express.

The pilot quoted: “In all honesty, passengers should never worry about turbulence”. (Express.co.uk)

“The aircraft is designed to take the stress and strain of turbulence. For example, it’s like designing a car with good enough suspension to drive over a rough surface road with potholes”. (Express.co.uk)

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Speaking in small terms, pilots are not concerned about turbulence – sidestepping it for benefit and ease rather than safety.

Pilots can predict where turbulence is and steer free from it, in the best conditions.

The pilot also stated, “we use met data and forecasts for jet streams to avoid potential areas”. (Express.co.uk)

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Patrick Smith the airline pilot, described in his book “Cockpit Confidential”: “A plane cannot be flipped upside down, thrown into a tailspin or otherwise flung from the sky by even the mightiest gust or air pocket”.

“Conditions might be annoying and uncomfortable, but the plane is not going to crash”. He added. (Express.co.uk)

Turbulence is ranked on a range of seriousness: light, moderate, severe and extreme.

It is stated, extreme is infrequent but yet not hazardous, however the plane would later be investigated by the maintenance workers.

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Each year, worldwide, approximately one hundred people, half of them flight crew, are injured by turbulence that requires medical attention. The most frequent injuries are; head, neck, ankle and shoulder.

The majority of injuries are occurred when passengers are not wearing seat belts during a turbulence, causing them to fall out or be thrown about. It is important to follow the orders of the crew and wear a seatbelt during turbulence.

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Smith stated: “If you want to limit the effects of turbulence the smoothest place to sit is over the wings, as it’s “nearest to the plane’s centre of lift and gravity”. He also said: “Steer clear of the rows of seats at the back closest to the tail as “the knocking and swaying is more pronounced”.