These can be separated into three wide categories as following:
Special interest holidays;
Activity holidays; and
A special interest holiday is a holiday spent doing a particular activity during the time of vacation. People who share same interests of the tourist would also be involved in the activity.
The following could be included in special interest holidays:
Above list holds a scale of special interest holidays that are accessible. Additionally, main part of the time should be occupied by the major activity. People taking photographs during holidays does not make the holiday a special interest holiday.
On a special interest holiday all activities are organised, with a plan, based on a day-to-day timetable. For instance, group of travellers on a birdwatchingholiday, could be visiting different sites each day to find a particular kind of bird.
Majority of time the group would participate in a certain activity connected to their interest, however, at some point they will visit attractions and relax. However, a particular issue does arise of special interest holidays, in order to please everyone, there must be a balance across the major interest of the group and other things that would be undertaken. Importantly, family members and partners of the group on holiday need looking after too.
Although package holidays are quite popular, alot of people today do not purchase them from a travel agent or tour operator, but rather make their own plans. This is named as self-packaging. It refers to the procedure of booking a holiday by purchasing flights and accommodation as singular products, and making a package in the manner a tour operator would.
Individual items can be purchased through a travel agent, but these are highly made online. This procedure is called independent travel that requires passengers to make direct bookings with the airlines and accommodation suppliers. However, this does not indicate people are travelling independently.
It has been stated that, the growing number of independent holidays is based on the following reasons:
Travellers may have previously visited the countries, and now feel more confident;
Travellers don’t feel the items provided by travel agents met their exact needs, or may have experienced something negative about package holidays in the past;
Tourists are happy to arrange a journey based on what they specifically want to do, see and visit, rather buy a holiday that is not according to their requirements;
People who have properties abroad or visit relatives and friends only need to book flights, as other parts of the journey have been organised;
Travellers can obtain information on destinations they want to visit through websites and guide books. There is a large variety of guide books available. Reports and advice on accommodation and other items are more widespread online;
Lastly, the internet has most importantly made it feasible to book reservations online, instead of being obligated to use services of the tour operator. It also provides independent tourists information they need and ways to book and pay for the accommodation and flights online.
Inbound passengers are also welcome, who shall be greeted at the airport steps by a private car and taken to the PremiAir service for quick-track passport processing. They shall then wait in the lounge until their baggage is retrieved and fetched to them.
The new service will be situated next to the Runway Visitor Park, away from the existing terminals. The expected opening is in “mid-2019”, just in time for the peak summer period.
The less mobile and wealthy passengers may be interested in this service. The airport asserts: “The total walking distance from arriving at the terminal to the aircraft door will be under 20 metres.”
Chief executive, Andrew Harrison, airport facilities for Manchester Airports Group, stated: “We hope the services it will offer will appeal to a wide range of passengers, whether they are travelling for business, want to mark a special occasion or just want to add something different to their experience.”
He also added, that it could be extended to the group’s other airlines, East Midland and Stansted.
Director of operations Ross Powell, for the designer, Jacobs, stated: “We have worked hard to create a simple yet elegant design, utilising natural materials, full height glass and visual connection to the airfield to offer the guest a warm, relaxing and personalised environment.” (Independent.co.uk)
Manchester Airport states: “No other major airport in the UK offers an accessible private terminal option for passengers on a ‘pay as you use’ basis.
“Such facilities are often restricted to business class and first class passengers or certain airlines, typically at significant additional cost.” (Independent.co.uk)
However, Heathrow Airport has had a VIP facility situated at Windsor Suite, for several years.
Only business and first class passengers are allowed to use “Heathrow VIP”, costing £3,300 for a maximum of three people.
Potential clients were told by the airport that: “Paparazzi are not allowed in the secure area of our suites and photography of any kind is not allowed at Heathrow without a permit.” However it cautions: “We cannot guarantee long distance photographs will not be taken”. (Indepentent.co.uk)
According to Tribune an announcement was made on Wednesday that Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) will be posting seven experienced officers of Pakistan Army Force (PAF) at distinct levels for the national flag carrier.
When the initial package holidays were introduced 50 years ago, majority of standard people had not travelled to foreign destinations, but rather spent their holidays within the United Kingdom, where good weather was not guaranteed. Package holidays offered a genuine substitute to the habitual British seaside vacation.
1. Usually the package price is much cheaper than a traveller would pay for an individual ‘product’.
2. The purchaser of package would know the cost of holiday when paying for it as one ‘item’.
3. The travel agent or tour operators take majority of responsibility of bookings and organisation.
4. Details of resort and hotel people are visiting can be seen on brochures published or online accounts and through today’s virtual tours.
5. To those people needing help and advice, a ‘rep’ is available most of the time on resort.
6. When people know majority of travellers staying at the hotel are from the UK, it builds their confidence to travel in those countries.
7. As part of the package, entertainment and children’s activities are supplied by the hotel. Package holidays are mostly linked with the term mass tourism. Tourists travelling in large volumes visiting the same destination is termed as ‘mass tourism’.
8. Mass tourism places are normally situated on coasts, with many visitors searching for ‘sun, sand and sea’ holiday.
9. Majority of mass tourism destinations produced as centres of package holidays, with high number of people arriving on chartered aircraft and stopping in pre-booked hotel accommodation.
10. Private-sector travel agents usually arrange holidays to mass tourism destinations, with only a few people visiting independently.
11. During the summer months majority of mass tourism destinations have a high or peak season.
It narrates in Wikipedia, the dish was originated in United Kingdom and Ireland. The main ingredients of the recipe are mashed potato crust and meat filling.
Mozzarella cheese is layered top of the cooked chicken mince.
Wikipedia also states, the recipe has many alterations, however, defined ingredients are minced red meat, (usually, the lamb is used for ‘cottage pie’, and beef for ‘shepherds pie), cooked in gravy or sauce with onions and occasionally with vegetables, then topped with mashed potato and finally baked. Some use grated cheese to create a layer of melted cheese on top.
I prepared the mashed potato, adding a hint of salt and black pepper for extra taste.
The cook books of earlier times, as stated in Wikipedia described the recipe as a method of utilizing leftover cooked meat of any type, with the sides and bottom of dish covered with mashed potato, aswell as the top.
Whilst spreading the mashed potato oil from the mince mixed into it. At the time, it looked stained and quite unpleasant. However, surprisingly after the shepherd’s pie was cooked, I was overwhelmed by golden and crispy effect.
Due to technical fault, Etihad Airways Flight EY22, returned to Manchester Airport shortly after take-off.
Passengers stated the “loud bang” was heard just before take-off, from the back of the plane.
The plane was in air for approximately 30 minutes, engulfing in smoke before the pilot returned back to Manchester Airport.
The ‘cabin pressurization system’ had a technical fault, according to Etihad Airways spokesperson.
On Tuesday morning passengers were placed on a rescheduled flight, after staying the night in a hotel.
Few passengers criticised Etihad bosses for the “shortness of communication” after the incident.
A passenger travelling to meet his friends in Thailand, Gary McVey, 47, stated: “The plane was on the runway and then there was an explosion”.
He continued: “We were stuck in air for 25 to 30 minutes. It was quite a heavy landing. We were kept on the runway for about an hour”.
Gary who is from Cheshire, stated further: “People were screaming for the plane to stop. Then when we were going into the air, I thought ‘well here we go, this is it’.
He continued: “There is a woman with a five month old baby, she has not been offered any assistance formula or water”. (www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk)
Another passenger, Priyanka Mohanan, 33, from Macclesfield, stated: “As soon as the flight took off, there was a bang sound. Passengers started shouting ‘stop the flight’. I looked back and there was alot of smoke.
“By that time, we had already taken off into the air. There were no casualties or anything, but there was alot of smoke.
“As soon as we landed the firebrigade was there.
“I am visiting family in Mumbai, I was supposed to attend a wedding and have missed one day already”. (www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk)
Etihad Airways’s spokesperson stated: “Etihad Airways confirms that flight EY22, Manchester to Abu Dhabi on 14 January returned to Manchester Airport shortly after take-off, due to a technical issue associated with the cabin pressurization system.
“The aircraft landed safely and passengers disembarked and were offered hotel accommodation including meals. Guests were updated throughout the disruption and were re-booked onto alternative flights on January 15.
“We regret any inconvenience caused. The safety of our guests and crew is always our number one priority”. (www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk)
According to Wikipedia, pilaf or pilau is a rice dish, and the technique of cooking it, to some extent is of West Asian origin and partially SouthAsian. The rice is cooked in stock, with spices, and other ingredients such as vegetables, meat and dried fruit. Some ingredients can be mixed after cooking, if need to maintain single grains seperate from clumping.
Pilaf or pilau is a main course dish, originated from West Asia, South Asia, Central Asia, Balkans, East Africa and the Caribean. The rice is served hot, and its main ingredients are: rice, spices, meat, vegetables and dried fruits.
It mentions in Wikipedia that the ancient Hindu text Mahabharata, from the IndianSubcontinent states, rice and meat are cooked together, and “pollao” or “pulao” is a word referring to the dish in ancient Sanskrit works, for example the Yajnavalkya Smrti.
Alexandrathe Great was served pilaf at the royal banquet, after his capture of Sogdian capital of Marakanda, now known as the modern Samarkand.
The tenth-century Persian scholar Avicena (ibn Sina), discovered the receipe of pilaf, and devoted a chapter on how to make various pilafs, in his books of medicalsciences. He also gave explanations on the benefits and downsides of each ingredient used in preparing the dishes. It also states in Wikipedia, Persians believe Ibn Sina is the “father” of current pilaf.
In the MiddleEast and Transcaucasia pilau became quality food over the years with alterations and changes made by the Persians, Turks, Arabs and Armenians. Bukharan and PersianJews introduced it to Isreal.
Throughout the time of SovietUnion, the Central Asian types of the dish mushroomed throughout all Soviet republics, that it grew part of the popular SovietCuisine.
For many passengers flights and how the planes function is an enigma, and having to put trust in the pilots capacity. Fliers are frequently worried about turbulence. It can differ from mild interruption to being violently shook to your seat. It is prompted by divergent masses of air striking at inconsistent speeds and courses. However, how concerned should the passengers be? Does it actually signify terrible news at any one point?
“Turbulence” as a matter of fact should certainly not worry the passengers, disclosed the pilot to Express.
The pilot quoted: “In all honesty, passengers should never worry about turbulence”. (Express.co.uk)
“The aircraft is designed to take the stress and strain of turbulence. For example, it’s like designing a car with good enough suspension to drive over a rough surface road with potholes”. (Express.co.uk)
Speaking in small terms, pilots are not concerned about turbulence – sidestepping it for benefit and ease rather than safety.
Pilots can predict where turbulence is and steer free from it, in the best conditions.
The pilot also stated, “we use met data and forecasts for jet streams to avoid potential areas”. (Express.co.uk)
Patrick Smith the airline pilot, described in his book “Cockpit Confidential”: “A plane cannot be flipped upside down, thrown into a tailspin or otherwise flung from the sky by even the mightiest gust or air pocket”.
“Conditions might be annoying and uncomfortable, but the plane is not going to crash”. He added. (Express.co.uk)
Turbulence is ranked on a range of seriousness: light, moderate, severe and extreme.
It is stated, extreme is infrequent but yet not hazardous, however the plane would later be investigated by the maintenance workers.
Each year, worldwide, approximately one hundred people, half of them flight crew, are injured by turbulence that requires medical attention. The most frequent injuries are; head, neck, ankle and shoulder.
The majority of injuries are occurred when passengers are not wearing seat belts during a turbulence, causing them to fall out or be thrown about. It is important to follow the orders of the crew and wear a seatbelt during turbulence.
Smith stated: “If you want to limit the effects of turbulence the smoothest place to sit is over the wings, as it’s “nearest to the plane’s centre of lift and gravity”. He also said: “Steer clear of the rows of seats at the back closest to the tail as “the knocking and swaying is more pronounced”.
According to Points to be Made, a few days ago Etihad initiated their “Global Sale in the UK, Ireland, Germany and Australia”. There are more countries nearby Continental Europe that have introduced their separate operations, from 12 January 2019.
To activate this discount, you must follow the instructions on how the discount works from the link below:
The discount fare applies to base fare (non-tax component) and taxes of about €430 on Spanish fares, with an expected discount of €140, resulting to an overall payment of €1710 per person. Italy has the lowest taxes in the EU with a potential of high savings, however, it balances off moderately by elevated base fares.
A GDS (Global Distribution System) is a worldwide distribution network, giving travel agents the ability to book more or less any travel items throughout the world. Sabre is a GDS, used by travel agents to research travel options, check prices and book reservations for every types of travel services, from airline flights, rental cars, to hotel rooms.
Sabre is amongst the popular GDS’s used around the world. Computer’s, IT and telecom play an important role in the travel industry. Independent travel companies use complex Computerised Reservation Systems (CRS), to control their inventory with telecom connecting their systems to different computers throughout the globe.
A GDS is comparable to a CRS, but used mainly for sales and issuing. It keeps statistics for thousands of different travel suppliers permitting travel experts to compare prices and services amongst sellers.
Reservations made by Sabre GDS, get transmitted to and kept in the travel agent’s computer system CRS.
For instance, when GDS is used to book a flight on British Airways, the reservation’s data is sent to airline’s private CRS. In few cases, the airline’s private CRS is GDS’s Sub-system, but the information is stored separately.
The travel agent is allowed to work on and modify a booking, through the local copy of reservation kept in Sabre.
The airline’s and Sabre copy of the booking are linked, allowing each other to be notified of any changes being made, such as cancelling a flight or confirming a special request.
Amongst the strengths of a GDS, is it contains majority of travel-related data. Some of this data comes from the travel company’s own computer system CRS.
The GDS receives other data through aggregator services, such as ATPCO, OAG and INNOVATA. This shall be explained in the next blog.
Sabre Ticketing, online course by Viasinc.
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From 31 January any cabin crew of PIA who weighs more than 30lbs (2st 2lbs) beyond the weight limit shall be prohibited from flying. A memo was distributed to approximately 1,800 employees.
According to CNN stated in Independent, the excess weight limit will be reduced to 5lbs a month.
The memo expressed:
“Any crew found above 30lbs from the desired weight after 31 January 2019 will be grounded and referred to Air Crew Medical Centre for medical evaluation and treatment until weight is reduced up to desired standard/BMI.” (http://www.independent.co.uk)
Diagrams have been distributed by the airline, commanding acceptable crew weight based on height. For instance, females with a height of 5ft 7in are given a weight span of 133-147lbs (9st 7lbs-10st).
Crew that are currently on “weight test” will require reporting to a monthly “grooming cell” before they are given permission to fly.
According to PIA spokesperson, 5 per cent of the staff will be affected by the new rules.
The CNN were told that, “nobody would like to have scruffy crew on the aircraft”, adding, that the crackdown was a “regular, routine matter” ensuring crew are “slim, smart and fit”.
It’s been over a year of receiving complaints about “obese” flight crew, the airline claimed. PIA also stated, reducing the weight is about both appearance and health of staff.
Threatened job losses of flight attendants not meeting the standard targets of dictated weight, is not occurring the first time, stated the airline. Air India, grounded approximately 130 of its “mainly women” cabin crew, in 2015, due to being “overweight”.
Pakistan International Airlines stated the resolution was based on safety matters and government laws, whilst the critics marked the act “ridiculous”.
Aviation industry consultant Mark Martin at the time said: as quoted in (Independent.co.uk)
“This move to impose a certain BMI, ignoring experience and other performance parameters, is immature, misogynistic and shockingly sexiest”. He also added: “We seem to have lost the plot on what is needed from flight attendants”.
An airline official said: as quoted in (Independent.co.uk)
“People who are fitter can respond quicker and more efficiently in case of any untoward situation”.