Package Holidays (Part 2)

Advantages of Package Holidays

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1. Usually the package price is much cheaper than a traveller would pay for an individual ‘product’.

2. The purchaser of package would know the cost of holiday when paying for it as one ‘item’.

3. The travel agent or tour operators take majority of responsibility  of bookings and organisation.

4. Details of resort and hotel people are visiting can be seen on brochures published or online accounts and through today’s virtual tours.

5. To those people needing help and advice, a ‘rep’ is available most of the time on resort.

6. When people know majority of travellers staying at the hotel are from the UK, it builds their confidence to travel in those countries.

7. As part of the package, entertainment and children’s activities are supplied by the hotel. Package holidays are mostly linked with the term mass tourism. Tourists travelling in large volumes visiting the same destination is termed as ‘mass tourism’.

8. Mass tourism places are normally situated on coasts, with many visitors searching for ‘sun, sand and sea’ holiday.

9. Majority of mass tourism destinations produced as centres of package holidays, with high number of people arriving on chartered aircraft and stopping in pre-booked hotel accommodation.

10. Private-sector travel agents usually arrange holidays to mass tourism destinations, with only a few people visiting independently.

11. During the summer months majority of mass tourism destinations have a high or peak season.

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Unit-1 An Introduction to Travel and Tourism

Handmade Baby knitwear! keep your cuties warm in the winteršŸ§¤šŸ§¦

Handknitted Grey booties by Raz&Nabz Baby Knitwear

It’s important to maintain the little feet and hands of our bundle of joys during winter.

Handmade hats, booties, mittens etc, can be found at reasonable prices from the website below:

Pink Mary Jane booties by Raz&Nabz Baby Knitwear

All products are handknitted with soft washable acrylic wool.

Premature baby or dolls outfit, hat, cardigan and booties

All products handmade upon request of size and colour.

Ever wondered why shepherd’s pie is called “Shepherd’s Pie”?

As I was preparing shepherd’s pie for an evening meal, my mind began to wonder, why is shepherd’s pie called “shepherd’s pie”?

According to Wikipedia, shepherd’s pie is a meat pie, with a crust or topping of mashed potato. I used chicken mince for my recipe, and not the beef mince.

Cooked chicken mince with jalapenos

It narrates in Wikipedia, the dish was originated in United Kingdom and Ireland. The main ingredients of the recipe are mashed potato crust and meat filling.

Mozzarella cheese is layered top of the cooked chickenĀ mince.

Grated cheese layered on top of filling

Wikipedia also states, the recipe has many alterations, however, defined ingredients are minced red meat, (usually, the lamb is used for ‘cottage pie’, and beef for ‘shepherds pie), cooked in gravy or sauce with onions and occasionally with vegetables, then topped with mashed potato and finally baked. Some use grated cheese to create a layer of melted cheese on top.

Mashed potato ready to be layered on top of mince and cheese

I prepared the mashed potato, adding a hint of salt and black pepper for extra taste.

The cook books of earlier times, as stated in Wikipedia described the recipe as a method of utilizing leftover cooked meat of any type, with the sides and bottom of dish covered with mashed potato, aswell as the top.

Mashed potato layered on top of cooked mince and cheese

Whilst spreading the mashed potatoĀ oil from the mince mixed into it. At the time, it looked stained and quite unpleasant. However, surprisingly after the shepherd’s pie was cooked, I was overwhelmed by golden and crispy effect.

Baked shepherd’s pie ready to be eaten

Shepherd’s pie served with coleslaw, beans and salad


Memorable PICS of my vacation to PAKISTAN! A visit to Rohtas Fort….

By RazPhotos

The beautiful view from 2nd level terrace of Man Singh Haveli at Rohtas Fort.

By RazPhotos

View of the nearby mosques from 2nd level terrace of Rohatas Fort.

By RazPhotos

Mesmerising view of defensive walls from the bastionĀ at Rohtas Fort.

By RazPhotos

Close up view of thick defensive walls from the bastion of Rohtas Fort.

By RazPhotos

View from 3rd level terrace each attached by the staircase at Rohtas Fort. The abandoned mosque is situated in middle of grass field.

By RazPhotos

Another outstanding view of the defensive walls at Rohtas Fort, edging with scenic hills.

By RazPhotos

The Haveli and remaining mansion of Man Singh at Rohtas Fort.

By RazPhotos

Close up of Man Singh’s remaining mansion at Rohtas Fort. A rickshaw can be seen parked near the staircase. Tourists visit only room left of the remaining mansion.

By RazPhotos

The 16th century coins of Emperor Sher Shah Suri, at Sohail Akbar Khan Visitors Information Centre, Rohtas Fort museum.

By RazPhotos

The shields of (British period) at Rohtas Fort museum.

By RazPhotos

Swords and helmet of (British Period) at Rohtas Fort museum.

By RazPhotos

Swords of the (British Period) at Rohtas Fort museum.

By RazPhotos

Statues of Emperor Sher Sha Suri with his guards at Rohtas Fort museum.

By RazPhotos

Statue of the wife (seated) of Sher Sha Suri at Rohtas Fort museum.

By RazPhotos

Sohail Akbar Khan Visitors Information Centre/Museum Rohtas Fort.

By RazPhotos

View of the Akbar Khan visitors Information Centre/ museum from 1st level terrace of Rohtas Fort.

By RazPhotos

Sher Shah Suri constructed Rohtas Fort to block Emperor Humayun’s return from India after defeating him in the battle of Kanouj. (Wikipedia)

By RazPhotos

Viewing the 3 levels of terrace each attached by a staircase. The outer walls of bastion, give a lighter shade through the reflection of sun.

By RazPhotos

Yet another stunning view of Rohtas Fort, from above the grassfields and below the shining sun. The fresh breeze and clear skies, with a hint of small clouds overlooking the hills far away.

By RazPhotos

The rays of shining sun above the grassfield and bastion fortifying the thick walls at Rohtas Fort.


Passengers report extreme fear after ‘loud bang’ on rear of Etihad Airways from Manchester Airport to Abu Dhabi

A terrified passenger described the ordeal to Manchester Evening: “We were going into the air and i thought ‘this is it”.

Following the incident on Monday night, passengers criticised Etihad Airways for insufficient interaction.

The flight from Manchester Airport to Abu Dhabi was compelled to return back, after a ‘loud bang’ at rear of the plane terrified passengers, and cabin being engulfed with smoke.

Due to technical fault, Etihad Airways Flight EY22, returned to Manchester Airport shortly after take-off.

Passengers stated the “loud bang” was heard just before take-off, from the back of the plane.

The plane was in air for approximately 30 minutes, engulfing in smoke before the pilot returned back to Manchester Airport.

The ‘cabin pressurization system’ had a technical fault, according to Etihad Airways spokesperson.

On Tuesday morning passengers were placed on a rescheduled flight, after staying the night in a hotel.

Few passengers criticised Etihad bosses for the “shortness of communication” after the incident.

A passenger travelling to meet his friends in Thailand, Gary McVey, 47, stated: “The plane was on the runway and then there was an explosion”.

He continued: “We were stuck in air for 25 to 30 minutes. It was quite a heavy landing. We were kept on the runway for about an hour”.

Gary who is from Cheshire, stated further: “People were screaming for the plane to stop. Then when we were going into the air, I thought ‘well here we go, this is it’.

He continued: “There is a woman with a five month old baby, she has not been offered any assistance formula or water”. (

Another passenger, Priyanka Mohanan, 33, from Macclesfield, stated: “As soon as the flight took off, there was a bang sound. Passengers started shouting ‘stop the flight’. I looked back and there was alot of smoke.

“By that time, we had already taken off into the air. There were no casualties or anything, but there was alot of smoke.

“As soon as we landed the firebrigade was there.

“I am visiting family in Mumbai, I was supposed to attend a wedding and have missed one day already”. (

Etihad Airways’s spokesperson stated: “Etihad Airways confirms that flight EY22, Manchester to Abu Dhabi on 14 January returned to Manchester Airport shortly after take-off, due to a technical issue associated with the cabin pressurization system.

“The aircraft landed safely and passengers disembarked and were offered hotel accommodation including meals. Guests were updated throughout the disruption and were re-booked onto alternative flights on January 15.

“We regret any inconvenience caused. The safety of our guests and crew is always our number one priority”. (


Where does Pilau rice originate from?

According to Wikipedia, pilaf or pilau is a rice dish, and the technique of cooking it, to some extent is of West Asian origin and partially South Asian. The rice is cooked in stock, with spices, and other ingredients such as vegetables, meat and dried fruit. Some ingredients can be mixed after cooking, if need to maintain single grains seperate from clumping.

Pilaf or pilau is a main course dish, originated from West Asia, South Asia, Central Asia, Balkans, East Africa and the Caribean. The rice is served hot, and its main ingredients are: rice, spices, meat, vegetables and dried fruits.

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It mentions in Wikipedia that the ancient Hindu text Mahabharata, from the Indian Subcontinent states, rice and meat are cooked together, and “pollao” or “pulao” is a word referring to the dish in ancient Sanskrit works, for example the Yajnavalkya Smrti.

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Alexandra the Great was served pilaf at the royal banquet, after his capture of Sogdian capital of Marakanda, now known as the modern Samarkand.

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The tenth-century Persian scholar Avicena (ibn Sina), discovered the receipe of pilaf, and devoted a chapter on how to make various pilafs, in his books of medical sciences. He also gave explanations on the benefits and downsides of each ingredient used in preparing the dishes. It also states in Wikipedia, Persians believe Ibn Sina is the “father” of current pilaf.

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In the Middle East and Transcaucasia pilau became quality food over the years with alterations and changes made by the Persians, Turks, Arabs and Armenians. Bukharan and Persian Jews introduced it to Isreal.

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Throughout the time of Soviet Union, the Central Asian types of the dish mushroomed throughout all Soviet republics, that it grew part of the popular Soviet Cuisine.

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Pilot discloses when to worry about plane turbulence!

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For many passengers flights and how the planes function is an enigma, and having to put trust in the pilots capacity. Fliers are frequently worried about turbulence. It can differ from mild interruption to being violently shook to your seat. It is prompted by divergent masses of air striking at inconsistent speeds and courses. However, how concerned should the passengers be? Does it actually signify terrible news at any one point?

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“Turbulence” as a matter of fact should certainly not worry the passengers, disclosed the pilot to Express.

The pilot quoted: “In all honesty, passengers should never worry about turbulence”. (

“The aircraft is designed to take the stress and strain of turbulence. For example, it’s like designing a car with good enough suspension to drive over a rough surface road with potholes”. (

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Speaking in small terms, pilots are not concerned about turbulence – sidestepping it for benefit and ease rather than safety.

Pilots can predict where turbulence is and steer free from it, in the best conditions.

The pilot also stated, “we use met data and forecasts for jet streams to avoid potential areas”. (

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Patrick Smith the airline pilot, described in his book “Cockpit Confidential”: “A plane cannot be flipped upside down, thrown into a tailspin or otherwise flung from the sky by even the mightiest gust or air pocket”.

“Conditions might be annoying and uncomfortable, but the plane is not going to crash”. He added. (

Turbulence is ranked on a range of seriousness: light, moderate, severe and extreme.

It is stated, extreme is infrequent but yet not hazardous, however the plane would later be investigated by the maintenance workers.

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Each year, worldwide, approximately one hundred people, half of them flight crew, are injured by turbulence that requires medical attention. The most frequent injuries are; head, neck, ankle and shoulder.

The majority of injuries are occurred when passengers are not wearing seat belts during a turbulence, causing them to fall out or be thrown about. It is important to follow the orders of the crew and wear a seatbelt during turbulence.

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Smith stated: “If you want to limit the effects of turbulence the smoothest place to sit is over the wings, as it’s “nearest to the plane’s centre of lift and gravity”. He also said: “Steer clear of the rows of seats at the back closest to the tail as “the knocking and swaying is more pronounced”.